Wiring in a private house: how to do it right
- Entering the house
- Input power to the house through the wall
- Input of power supply on the house underground
- Distribution switchboard
- Choosing the type of wiring in a private house
- Concealed electrical wiring
- Open wiring
How to mount wiring in a private house
The wiring device in a private house in some parameters may differ significantly from the wiring in the apartment. There may be large power consumers in the form of pumps, electric heaters and even machine tools.
In addition, a private house can be made of combustible materials, which also imposes a great responsibility on you. At the same time, in your house you have a wider choice of methods for laying and installing cables, especially if this is only the stage of building a house.
Entering the house
Any electrical network in a private house begins with its connection to the electrical network. To do this, you must obtain technical specifications from Energonadzor.
They also connect to the electrical network in most cases. The result of their work in 90% of cases is an input circuit breaker, the conclusions of which are connected to the meter. Usually, Power Supervision also requires you to connect the cable to the leads of the meter that will go directly to our distribution box. Our task is to prepare this cable.
Input power to the house through the wall
The most common way to enter a power cable into a house is through a wall (see How to enter the house by wire CIP ). It is quite simple to perform it, but there are several requirements that should be taken into account even at the installation stage.
Entering the house with the installation of the meter in the switchboard
- First of all, it should be borne in mind that, according to clause 2.1.79 of the OES, the entry into the house should be located at a height of at least 2.75 meters. The distance from the edge of the roof slope to the wire should not be less than 20 cm.
Note! If the height of your house does not allow entry into the house through the wall at a height of 2.5 meters, then entry through the roof is possible. But compliance with a height of 2.75 meters is mandatory.
- You should also take into account the fact that the standards of PUE require the ability to replace the wire. For this purpose, special sleeves are used. Usually it is a steel pipe.
Note! This pipe tube must be made in such a way as to exclude the possibility of moisture ingress and accumulation in it. To do this, it should be made tilted out and bend.
- Cable for electrical wiring in a private house can not be laid directly on building structures, if they are made of combustible material. Therefore, the cable should be placed in a fireproof sheath. This may be a metal corrugation or tray. In addition, lining between the wire and the wall of the fireproof material is possible. This may be asbestos cloth.
- Another point worth considering is the location of the input itself. According to clause 2.1.75 of the Electrical Code, it should be located not less than a meter from the window or balcony. If you have a second floor, then the distance from the wire to the window located above should also be at least 1 meter.
Input of power supply on the house underground
Although this method is used much less frequently in many ways, it is even more reliable. It is just necessary to foresee it at the stage of building the foundation, and this is often forgotten to be done.
Yes, and some power companies such input on the house causes a strong protest. Nevertheless, he has the right to exist and is very successful in many ways.
The photo shows the entry into the house with the installation of the counter on the pole
- According to paragraph 12.1 of the BCH 59 - 88, pipes, into which the el. cable should lie at a depth of 0.5 to 2 meters.
- These pipes should also be inclined towards the street in order to exclude the possibility of water accumulation in them and its entry into the room.
- After laying the cable in the pipe, they must be tightly sealed in order to completely eliminate the possibility of moisture getting into the room.
- When laying the cable on the combustible basement of the house, it is necessary to observe the same rules and regulations as when entering the power supply through the wall.
Before you make the wiring in a private house, you must correctly place the switchboard. There are a number of limitations that are completely logical and easily explained.
- First of all, according to paragraphs 11.1 of the BCH 59 - 88, switchboards should be located in places convenient for maintenance. They must have lighting and be located in places precluding their flooding. The latter is especially true when placing shields in the basement.
- In the room where the shield is located, there should be no strapping of liquid fuel boilers and gas pipes.
- Heating, water supply and sewage pipes passing through the premises should not have flanges, valves and other drainage or safety fittings here. The same applies to the systems of ventilation and air conditioning.
- Also, our instruction does not advise placing shields under the premises of bathrooms, latrines, steam rooms and other rooms in which there is a high risk of flooding.
- When attaching shields to combustible bases between it and the wall, a non-combustible surface should be provided. Usually in this role is a sheet of iron. In addition, all switchboards must be closed on the locking device.
Choosing the type of wiring in a private house
Laying of electrical wiring in a private house can be performed in two ways - open and hidden. Choosing the right option for your home depends on what material it is made of and your wishes.
We present only the basic requirements for each type of wiring, and you can choose the most suitable for your house building.
Concealed electrical wiring
Hidden electrical wiring found the most widespread. It reliably hides all engineering networks from prying eyes, does not steal free space and ensures the mechanical integrity of the wire.
At the same time, the cost of installing such a wiring is somewhat higher due to its labor intensity, and the possibilities of its repair and replacement are limited.
Hidden wiring in a wooden house
- Hidden electrical wiring in a private house, according to the table. 2.1.2 and 2.1.3 PUE, for non-combustible bases (brick, concrete, etc.) can be carried out directly on the structural elements in special grooves. After installation, they must be plastered with alabaster or plaster at least 10 mm thick.
- When installing in combustible structures (wooden houses) everything is a bit more complicated (see Basic requirements for wiring in a wooden house ). In this case, the wire must be laid with a lining of non-combustible materials (for example, asbestos cloth), followed by plastering.
Note! In all cases, the lining of non-combustible materials must be made so that on each side of the wire there is a stock of 1 cm.
- Another possible option for arranging concealed wiring in a wooden house is installation in plastic boxes or corrugations. But in this case, the box and the corrugation should be plastered after installation. And under the corrugation itself or the box it is necessary to enclose non-combustible materials.
- It is easiest to perform hidden wiring in a wooden house by laying it in a steel pipe or corrugation. In this case, no additional conditions are required.
The wiring of electrical wiring in a private house by an open method imposes higher requirements. Despite this, its installation is simpler, the speed of installation is higher, the possibilities for repair and maintenance are greater.
At the same time, it “steals” the free space of the room, open wiring does not fit into almost any modern room design, and the cost of mounting robots for fireproof surfaces is much higher.
Open wiring in your home
- Using all the same PUE tables, you can see that for mounting on non-flammable structures, the variant using insulators is possible. This retro version is now very popular, and even decorative wiring of this type has appeared. But the safety of this method is not at the highest level.
- Much more often, open wiring for fireproof structures is laid in plastic boxes and corrugations. This method allows you to protect the wiring from mechanical damage, as well as visually brightens it.
- On the combustible structures in an open way it is also possible to perform wiring, only with a lining of non-combustible materials. Only cables in a special sheath of non-combustible or slow-burning materials can be laid directly along the elements of such structures. But the aesthetic appearance of this wiring causes a lot of negative emotions.
- More often by the open method, according to the combustible structures, wiring is laid in steel or copper pipes, or steel corrugation. Such protection of the wire allows you to mount the wiring directly on the structural elements, without the use of additional linings.
In our article, we gave the main positions that you should pay attention to when designing an electrical network in a private house.
In the choice of wire section There is no difference between the calculation and distribution of lighting groups and the power supply methods of different consumers between an apartment and their own home. Therefore, numerous videos and articles on our website will help you with this.